Sydney was founded in 1788 when the first fleet arrived in Australia from England. On 13 May 1787 a fleet of 11 ships set sail from Portsmouth, England. On board were 759 convicts, most of them men with sailors and marines to guard the prisoners. With them they took seeds, farm implements, livestock such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses and chickens and 2 years supply of food. The first colonists came ashore at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. They were commanded by Captain Arthur Philip (1738-1814).
Sydney was named after Thomas Townshend - Lord Sydney (1733-1800). He became British Secretary of State in 1783 and recommended the British establish a colony in Australia.
At first things were difficult for the colonists and food was short although Phillip sent a ship to South Africa for more provisions which returned in May 1789. Food was rationed and the rations were anything but generous. However things gradually improved. A second fleet arrived in Australia in 1790 and a third fleet came in 1791. At first the settlers in Sydney lived in simple wooden huts but later convicts made bricks for houses. The first church in Sydney opened in 1793. www.localhistories.org/sydney